Combat in Dangerous can be done manually (a.k.a. dogfighting) or remotely (using guided weapons).
The weapons that can be used are lasers, mass accelerator launchers and gravity bomb launchers. The outcome largely depends on the pilot's skills and the ship's maneuverability.
There are modules that a pilot can use to make his/her life easier when dogfighting: a Webber (which will slow or even immobilize the target), a Warp Jammer (to prevend the target from warping away). Since the dogfight combat is happening at close distance, sensor enhancing modules are not very important.
Note that you can shoot down your wingmen or 3rd party ships while dogfighting! Aim carefully!
In automated fight, the weapons used are the turrets and the missile launchers. Before entering the combat the pilot must select a target and lock its weapons on it. The turrets and missile launchers WILL NOT fire if there is no target selected AND if there is no lock obtained on the target. The turrets have a bigger damage impact than missiles but the main disadvantage versus missiles is their slow tracking (making them less accurate against fast moving targets) and their shorter range. There are some modules a pilot should use to increase those weapons' efficiency: Turret Ammo Boost, Turret Tracker, Missile Speed Boost and Warhead Multiplier. Having a slow moving/standing target increases the damage your weapons can deliver so use a Webber module.
The problem when fighting using guided weapons is the ability of the target to successfully escape the lock. To prevent that the pilot should use sensor enhancing modules such as Sensor Boost, Sensor Damp, Lock Distance Boost and engage in a fight having a ECCM module mounted.
When dogfighting the pilot must get at close distance (for his weapons to be effective) as fast as possible. So speed is crucial. Put the throttle control to the max (you can use an Afterburner module, a Hull Modifier module to increase the max speed) to get close then reduce the speed to 20-30% (you should have turned on the Webber by now) and fire away. To maximize the damage use the appropriate ammunition (usually all ship's shields are more vulnerable to EM ammo and the armour is more vulnerable to kinetic ammo). Use some XP points to develop the Newtonian Flight skill. Use EMC modules to break enemies' lock on your ship.
When using guided weapons there are a few tactical maneuvres that the pilot can execute: when using turrets select the Keep-at-distance autopilot ('K' button) because the turrets accuracy is greater against a target that has low relative velocity. It also improves turret's tracking. When firing missiles use a Webber to keep the enemy within the explosion radius of your weapons. If you are facing an enemy that uses the turrets consider attacking him with missiles, use Orbit autopilot ('O' button) to minimize its turrets effectiveness and stay at close distance (5km). ECM modules can reduce the damage you receive while fighting. Switch your ammunition for the biggest damage.
The importance of energy
Regardless of what type of combat you preffer, using energy draining modules (Energy Neutralizer and Energy Vampire) always helps since all the weapons (except Small Laser modules and Missile Launcher modules) needs energy for firing. A target without energy points will also be incapable of using its Shild Recharger and Armour Repairer modules to restore its defences.
At the same time make sure you are not depleting all your energy points. Use an Energy Booster and one (or more) Powercore Plus and Powercore Speed modules.
Do not ignore to use your XP points to upgrade your skills! It really helps!